Post Conflict Urban Strategies: WARSAW

Warsaw is a city that has been damaged through history because of war but the most damages were given in World War 2 by Nazi Troops. During the war, %85 of the city was demolished. After war, Polish patriots encountered to build the old city by benefiting from paints, archived documents and Nazi’s Pabst plan. This report will cover pre-information Read More …

Post Conflict Urban Strategies: ROTTERDAM

Rotterdam faced its darker days because of the German bombardment in 1946. In one night most of the inner city was destroyed. Before the bombardment there were different urban patterns. While designing the city again it was a tabula Rosa. Different strategies for different urban areas were determined. The city centre was completely rebuilt on a grid system, in functionalist Read More …

Post Conflict Urban Strategies: BEIRUT

City of Beirut is an example of the way of building the city through history. The old city was destroyed and rebuilt several times throughout history. The establishment of the state of Israel after WW2 and the displacement of a hundred thousand Palestinian refugees to Lebanon (Palestinian refugees constituted 35% of the population between 1976-90) during the 1948 and 1967 Read More …

War and Architecture

Architecture is always a part of life. Places and spaces, we live in are product of architecture.  Creating alternative spaces, emotions, experiences are our elements. That’s why we can search for architectural components and experiences in all fields of life. Also, in war see the glace of creation for space in a whole different purpose. The elements of military architecture Read More …

War and the City within a Historical Perspective

According to oxford dictionary, the definition of war is; “A state of armed conflict between different countries or different groups within a country.” (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/war) With respect to this definition and the historical examples, war and the city have a strong relationship. Cities always took an essential role in the warfare; sometimes as a battlefield sometimes as a target and sometimes even Read More …

Urban Warfare – A war in a city

It is a combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. Urban warfare is very different from combat in the open field at both the operational and tactical level because of the presence of civilians and the complexity of the urban terrain. To understand the term urban warfare, we first look at the components of an urban environment Read More …

Security and The City From Planning, Design and Management Perspective

Place-based crime prevention strategies focus upon the crime site – the spatial aspects of a target and the specific location of crime. Place-based crime prevention strategy, crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) emerged as an independent theory in the mid-twentieth century. CPTED asserts that the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in Read More …

Conflict Visualisation

Throughout the history, war in the city has been represented with different ways. Different materials and different data have been used in these representation techniques. There are six different representation techniques: Pictorial, Cartographic, Diagrammatic, Narrative, Photographic and Cinematic Representations. Pictorial Representation This technique were used generally in old times and generally they represented the during war times. Some of these Read More …

Phenomenon and Ontology of War

Trying to explain the phenomenology of war triggers a lot of important questions which need to be answered to reach a significant conclusion. A general perception of war would define it as (a ‘war event’) an occurrence of purposive and lethal violence between two or more social groups pursuing conflicting political goals that results in fatalities, with at least one Read More …

Typology of War & Changing Paradigms of Warfare

Study made through a specification of four basic generations according to changing paradigms that are taken as break point which change the characteristics of war and warfare. Changing strategies, tactics, typologies and actors that were shaped by these paradigms throughout history. Spatial features of battlefields, the changing position of cities in the battles and the impact of wars on urban Read More …